[Vredeslijst] The import of the Marshall Islands nuclear lawsuit
Henk van der Keur
henk.vdkeur op antenna.nl
Do mei 8 09:53:09 CEST 2014
The import of the Marshall Islands nuclear lawsuit
Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists | Opinion | Avner Cohen & Lily Vaccaro, 05/06/2014
The tiny Republic of the Marshall Islands recently filed an extraordinary lawsuit at the
International Court of Justice in The Hague, suing all nine nuclear weapons possessors for
failing to eliminate their nuclear arsenals. The legal basis of the case is derived from Article
VI of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which obligates the five nuclear weapons
states under the treaty (the United States, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom,
France, and the People“s Republic of China) "to pursue negotiations in good faith on effective
measures relating to cessation of the nuclear arms race at an early date and to nuclear
The lawsuit also charges the four nuclear weapons states outside of the NPT-including one,
Israel, which has never even acknowledged possessing nuclear weapons-with violating
international customary law. But is this lawsuit more than a publicity gimmick? How seriously
should it be taken? What does it tells us about current international nonproliferation regime?
It is easy, of course, to dismiss the lawsuit as an exercise in futility, or at best an act of moral
inspiration that will have almost no political impact on the real world. In a sense, this
assessment is flatly true. After all, only three of the nine nuclear states named by the lawsuit
actually abide to the rulings of the International Court of Justice. Furthermore, the court tends
to avoid making rulings on matters of national security, let alone on nuclear weapons-related
matters (notwithstanding its 1996 advisory opinion on the legality of the threat or use of
nuclear weapons). And, of course, all of this court's rulings lack a means of enforcement.
Nevertheless, this unprecedented lawsuit highlights attitudes, perceptions, and strategies that
are related to the politics of nuclear disarmament and are worth noting. The lawsuit reflects a
growing belief among international legal and policy experts (as well as some diplomats) that
the time has come for the NPT to be treated-due to its near universal adherence-as part
of customary international law by which all states must abide, regardless of whether or not
they actually signed the treaty.
Based on this reasoning, the Marshall Islands asks the International Court of Justice to rule
that all nine nuclear states are in material breach of their legal obligation to disarm under
international law, regardless of their status under the NPT. Currently the international
community does not consider the NPT to be part of international customary law; if it were, the
treaty would have a legal status similar to that of the international bans on slavery or torture.
Should the International Court of Justice make such a ruling, it could elevate the discourse
on nuclear disarmament from vague declarations of intentions to stark statements of legally
The lawsuit accentuates the rise of a new kind of politics of nuclear disarmament, a politics
that ties nuclear disarmament to humanitarian issues. Linking humanitarian concerns to
nuclear disarmament is, of course, not new; this connection has implicitly existed since
nuclear weapons were introduced. In 2010, however, the linkage became explicit when
humanitarian consequences were addressed in the NPT Review Conference final document.
In 2013, the Conference on the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons in Oslo, Norway,
started a series of international meetings on this theme. These conferences press the issue
of nuclear disarmament through the lens of the unique characteristics of nuclear
weapons-their capability for unleashing destruction not just on vast numbers of humans, but
also on the environment, the economy, and the well-being of future generations. Notably, all
five nuclear nations under the NPT and Israel refused to attend the first two humanitarian
conferences and are unlikely to attend the next, calling them a distraction from the legitimate
fora for disarmament negotiations.
The timing of the lawsuit is also significant. The Marshall Islands filed the suit after the
second humanitarian consequences conference in Nayarit, Mexico, and a week before the
NPT Preparatory Committee sessions in New York. It seems to be an attempt to use the
momentum of the Nayarit conference to put the question of the legality of nuclear arsenals on
the agenda at the Preparatory Committee meetings. So far, however, the attempt has not
been successful. While a number of nongovernmental organizations have been vocal about
the lawsuit, especially at NPT Preparatory Committee side events, the delegations
participating in the conference have remained all but silent on the subject.
Finally, the Marshalls lawsuit is an effort to force the four non-NPT nuclear weapons
countries (India, Israel, Pakistan, and North Korea) to accept the same status-and therefore
have the same disarmament obligation-as the NPT nuclear weapons states. Israel has
never even officially confirmed nuclear possession, and this lawsuit is arguably the first
formal challenge of Israel“s policy of nuclear opacity, or amimut, by a non-Arab state. In
arguing that the NPT falls under customary international law, the lawsuit maintains that all
nuclear weapons states are legally required to begin negotiations in good faith towards
The lawsuit's greatest symbolic strength is based on history; the Marshall Islands have
firsthand knowledge of the consequences of nuclear weapons. From 1946 to 1958, the
United States conducted 67 atmospheric nuclear tests in Marshall Islands territories in the
Pacific. The hydrogen bomb test in 1954 forced the inhabitants of two of the Marshall Islands,
Rongelap and Utrik, to evacuate, and the overall radiological damage done during these tests
is still a matter of contention.
So the Marshall Islands' lawsuit should be taken seriously to some extent, but not because of
any short-term political impact. Rather, the importance of the lawsuit is based on its ability to
highlight the emergence of a new politics of nuclear disarmament, a politics that challenges
the very legitimacy and legality of nuclear weapons possession. The lawsuit is unlikely to
change nuclear disarmament“s legal standing. It could, however, foster international public
support for more concrete efforts toward nuclear disarmament. Whether this type of
approach will gain significant traction in the public sphere-as the International Campaign to
Ban Landmines did in 1997, leading to a global ban on land mines-remains to be seen. But
the nuclear community should closely monitor the reactions to this lawsuit, because such a
public response is, if not certain, at least now possible.
Avner Cohen is a professor of nonproliferation studies at the Monterey Institute of
International Studies and the education program director at the James Martin Center for
Nonproliferation Studies. He is the author of Israel and of Israel and the Bomb (1998).
Lily Vaccaro is a masters candidate in nonproliferation and terrorism studies at the Monterey
Institute of International Studies and a graduate research assistant at the James Martin
Center for Nonproliferation Studies. She has represented China in a simulation of the NPT
Preparatory Committee at the institute.
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